Controlled Digital Lending是什麼?

我們館所使用自動化系統的廠商去年提供了幾場支援 Controlled Digital Lending (數位借閱控制,CDL) 的線上教育訓練,這是我第一次聽到 CDL 這個名詞,但也沒太在意。

CDLmain
圖片來源:Controlled Digital Lending by Libraries

不過最近越來越常看到這個名詞,也得知幾個主流自動化系統陸續支援這個功能,或許是疫情的關係帶來這個需求。首先,什麼是 Controlled Digital Lending,看看下面的影片說明:

但這樣做會不會被出版社告? 在台灣行得通嗎?

果然,Google 一下就找到前年(2020) 六月幾大出版社控告 Internet Archive 的新聞[1],然後進一步找到這事件的後續[2],Internet Archive已應出版社要求將《鼠族》(Maus) 這個書的pdf檔下架,原因則雙方各說各話,有興趣的人可以查看延伸閱讀的連結,目前這宗官司還在進行中,Internet Archive 還有多達2百多萬不是 public domain的書透過 CDL 方式提供借閱。想進一步了解 Internet Archive 的 CDL,可以查看他們的部落格

Maus

既然叫 Controlled Digital Lending,就表示它是有一套機制及政策來確保讓有版權的電子檔的流通,就像實體書一樣。有一個網站叫 Controlled Digital Lending by Libraries ,在網站首頁就開宗名義說明何謂 Controlled Digital Lending:

Controlled Digital Lending (CDL) is an emerging method that allows libraries to loan print books to digital patrons in a “lend like print” fashion. Through CDL, libraries use technical controls to ensure a consistent “owned-to-loaned” ratio, meaning the library circulates the exact number of copies of a specific title it owns, regardless of format, putting controls in place to prevent users from redistributing or copying the digitized version. When CDL is appropriately tailored to reflect print book market conditions and controls are properly implemented, CDL may be permissible under existing copyright law. CDL is not intended to act as a substitute for existing electronic licensing services offered by publishers. Indeed, one significant advantage of CDL is addressing the “Twentieth Century Problem” of older books still under copyright but unlikely ever to be offered digitally by commercial services.

雖然控制流通的數量,且特別針對那些出版社未提供電子檔的圖書來數位化和流通,但適法性為何才是重點。因此這個網站提供許多資源及FAQ來支持 CDL 的發展。

此外,YouTube上也可以找到很多有關 Controlled Digital Lending 的影片,下面幾個是我比較感興趣的:

  • Collaboratively Building the Future for Controlled Digital Lending
    Boston Library Consortium initiated a project in fall 2020 to explore how to implement consortial controlled digital lending. This project briefing will describe the Consortium’s engagement with experts, partners, and vendors to understand the range of available options, the recommendations they built to map out the implementation of controlled digital lending, and the steps the Consortium is currently undertaking to move forward. We will also address the implications for controlled digital lending more generally, and the opportunity for other libraries and consortia to get involved.
  • Debate: Controlled Digital Lending

延伸閱讀:

  1. U-ACG — 全球四大出版社聯合控告網路數位圖書館侵犯版權
  2. Publishers Weekly — PRH, Internet Archive Clash Over ‘Maus’
  3. SSRN — Controlled Digital Lending of Library Books in Canada
    This paper explores legal considerations for how libraries in Canada can lend digital copies of books.

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